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Pathogenesis and treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19

Mehmet; Gökhan; Pamir

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  "DOI": "10.3906/biy-2105-37", 
  "abstract": "<p>COVID-19 is a viral infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that killed a large&nbsp;number of patients around the world. A hyperinflammatory state resulting in a cytokine storm and adult respiratory distress syndrome&nbsp;seems to be the major cause of the death. Many mechanisms have been suggested in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 associated cytokine&nbsp;storm (COVID-CS). Insufficient viral clearance and persistence of a strong cytokine response despite inadequate antiviral immunity&nbsp;seem to be the main mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis. The diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on relatively constant clinical&nbsp;symptoms, clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques, while the diagnosis of COVID-CS is a rather dynamic process,&nbsp;based on evolving or newly emerging findings during the clinical course. Management of COVID-19 consists of using antiviral agents&nbsp;to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and treating potential complications including the cytokine storm together with general supportive&nbsp;measures. COVID-CS may be treated using appropriate immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory drugs that reduce the level of&nbsp;inappropriate systemic inflammation, which has the potential to cause organ damage. Currently corticosteroids, IL-6 blockers, or IL-1&nbsp;blockers are most widely used for treating COVID-CS.</p>", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Mehmet"
      "family": "G\u00f6khan"
      "family": "Pamir"
  "container_title": "Turkish Journal of Biology", 
  "id": "227983", 
  "issue": "SI-1", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "page": "372-389", 
  "title": "Pathogenesis and treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "volume": "45"
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