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FREEDOM (HÜRRİYET) MARCHES IN TURKESTAN

   Shahnoza NAZAROVA

The first quarter of the 20th century was the most controversial and glorious years in the history of the Uzbek people. The nation woke up against the Russian government and oppression and began to demand their rights. At that time, the Turkic peoples of Turkestan, the Caucasus and the Volga region were engaged in freedom struggles. As in the Caucasus and the Volga region, various trends, such as Ottomanism, Islamism, and Turkism, clashed in Turkestan, and the nation's intelligentsia sought the path of national progress. A very difficult social situation has arisen, religion, morality, life, education, and health care have been disrupted, and centuries-old traditions have been rejected under material-spiritual hardship, hunger, and poverty but a new system suitable for survival and development had not been created. Under these circumstances, the Turkestan intelligentsia concluded that it was impossible to remain in this state, and a national awakening movement began. This process also affected the literature, classical literature and the Enlightenment literature at its core gave way to modern literature. It was a literature that called for freedom, for struggle, for rebellion against slavery. Jadidism created not only own poems, dramas, novels, but also freedom marches, with the aim of awakening the spirit of the ancient Turan in generations.

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